CNS Occasional Papers

Open Skies Airplane in flight

Making a Better Open Skies Treaty

How the Biden Administration can re-join the treaty, Russia may be persuaded to stay in it, and other members can help facilitate them.

OP #49: A Guide to Investigating Outbreak Origins

Nature versus the laboratory.

OP #48: US Nonproliferation Cooperation with Russia and China

Absent great power cooperation, nonproliferation will be difficult to sustain.

Phosphate mine - Cover of OP#47: Dual Use in the DPRK: Uranium Extraction from Phosphate Fertilizer Factories

OP #47: Dual Use in the DPRK

North Korea could produce more yellowcake than previously assessed.

North Korean missiles trapped in ice with sunshine photo illustration

OP #46: Options for a Verifiable Freeze on North Korea’s Missile Programs

Freezing North Korea’s missile program can be a first step toward promoting trust and providing concrete security benefits.

OP #45: The Finger on the Button

Authorizing and executing launch in nuclear-armed states.

OP #44: Eyes on U: Opportunities, Challenges, and Limits of Remote Sensing for Monitoring Uranium Mining and Milling

Geospatial tech sheds light on secretive first step of nuclear fuel cycle.

OP #43: North Korea’s International Scientific Collaborations: Their Scope, Scale, and Potential Dual-Use and Military Significance

International scientific collaborations are helping North Korea advance its technology.

Le Hague nuclear reprocessing plant. (Credit: United States Department of Energy.)

OP #42: The Other Fissile Material: Strengthening National and International Plutonium Management Approaches

Recommendations to avoid risks posed by existing and potential reprocessing programs.

OP#41: Monitoring Uranium Mining and Milling in India and Pakistan through Remote Sensing Imagery

Open-source technologies allow analysts to monitor increased uranium production in South Asia.